Arılar Neden Petekleri Altıgen Yaparlar?



Doğanın usta mimarları arılar, yaptıkları petekleri neden altıgen yaparlar?

Arılar Neden Petekleri Altıgen Yaparlar?
Arılar Neden Petekleri Altıgen Yaparlar?

Bal peteklerinin en temel inşaat malzemesi balmumudur. Bu malzemenin de salgılanması için belirli bir sıcaklık vardır. Bu sıcaklığı da işçi arılar, peteğin inşasına başladıkları zaman ilk olarak birbirlerine zincir şeklinde bağlanarak gereken sıcaklığa ulaşırlar. Bu malzemenin ilk salgılandığındaki rengi beyazdır. Bunun içine eklenen polen (çiçek tozu) ve diğer maddeler ile sarı ve kahverengi olur. Ayrıca arılar, balmumunu toplu iğnenin başı kadar parçalarlar ve çok akıllı şekilde kullanarak minimum balmumu ile maksimum petek inşa etmeye çalışırlar.

Zamanın ünlü matematikçileri arılar hakkında yıllarca süren araştırmalar yapmışlar fakat herhangi bir açıklama yapamamışlardır. Günümüzdeki matematikçilerin yaptıkları açıklamada “ Bir alanın maksimum kullanımı için en uygun geometrik şekil altıgendir.” demişlerdir. Yani bir depoyu en az malzeme kullanarak ve en çok yer sağlayabilecek şekilde inşa etmek için duvarları altıgen yaparlar. Aslında arılar, geometrik şekillerden en uygununu kullanmaktadırlar.

Arıların peteklerinde her bir gözün derinliği 3 santimetredir ve duvar kalınlığı da milimetrenin yüzde beşidir. Çok ince duvar kalınlığı olsa da altıgen yapı sebebiyle yüksek dirence sahip olurlar ve petekler, arıların depoladıkları kilolarca balı sorunsuz taşır.

Eğer arılar bu petekleri altıgen yerine başka bir geometrik şekil mesela beşgen,  sekizgen, daire gibi şekilleri seçselerdi bitişik olan bu gözler arasında boşluklar oluşacaktı. Yani işçi arılar daha fazla çalışacak ve daha fazla balmumu kullanarak bu boşlukları kapatmaya çalışacaklardı. Aslında boşluk kalmaması için arılar, üçgen veya kare kullanabilirlerdi. Buradaki püf noktayı gene matematikçiler görmüşlerdir. Üçgen, kare ve altıgen şekillerinden toplam kenar uzunluğu en az olan şekil altıgendir. Aynı miktarda balmumu ile arılar daha çok altıgen odacıkları yapabilecekleri için altıgen şeklini kullanırlar.

Arıların petekleri örerken oluşturdukları işbirliği çok şaşırtıcıdır. Dışarıdan tamamlanmış bir peteğe baktığımızda tek bir blok şeklinde örüldüğünü düşünürüz. Ancak arılar, bu petekleri yaparken ayrı ayrı noktalardan örerler. Çok sayıda arı petek yapımına üç dört yerden başlar ve peteği öre öre ortada buluşurlar. Bunu yaparken en ufak bir hata veya bir uyuşmazlık göremezsiniz. Arılar bu petekleri geceleri yaparlar ve belirli açılara göre yaparlar ki bu açılar sayesinde ballar dökülmez. Arılar bu tür özelliklere doğar doğmaz sahip olurlar.


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