Dünya ve en küçük okyanus



Arktik Okyanusu en büyük dördüncü okyanus olarak kabul edilir. Uluslararası Hidrografi Örgütü (IHO) eliyle okyanus diye kabul edilmektedir. (Arctic Ocean) Yüzölçümü on dört milyon doksan bin kilometre kare olan büyük bir alandır.(18 adet Türkiye eder.)Diğer okyanuslara göre derinliği daha az olan Arktik Okyanusu’ nun derinliği en yüksek beş bin dört yüz kırk dokuz metre olan Lena Çukuru’ dur.http://www.google.com

En küçük okyanus
En küçük okyanus

Ortalama derinliği ise bin otuz sekiz metredir. Arktik Okyanusu’ nun Rusya, ABD, Kanada, Danimarka (Grönland), Norveç (Svalbard ve Jan Mayen) ile kıyıları bulunmaktadır. Fransızca metinlerde Arktik buz ya da Buzul Okyanusu, Türkiye’ de Kuzey Buz Denizi olarak bilinen Arktik Okyanusu tam olarak Asya, Avrupa ve Kuzey Amerika’ nın kuzey kısmında bulunan, Kuzey Kutbu’ nu da içine alan, içi buzlarla dolu bir okyanustur. Ayrıca Arktik Okyanusu’ nun yer altı kaynakları da zengindir. Havaların soğuk olduğu kış aylarında buz yoğunluğu oldukça fazladır. Havaların sıcak olduğu yaz aylarında ise buzların çoğu erir. Küresel ısınma ile eriyen buzlar sonrasında bu okyanusun yer altı kaynaklarına ulaşmak daha da kolay olmaktadır. Rus bilim insanları yaklaşık olarak on milyar ton doğalgaz ve petrol olduğunu düşünüyor. Amerikalı bilim insanları ise bu sayının daha fazla olduğunu öne sürüyor ve Dünya’ daki doğalgaz ve petrolün yüzde yirmi beşinin bu buzulların altında olduğunu söylüyorlar. İkinci Dünya Savaşında Amerika’ dan Rusya’ ya malzeme taşıyan gemilerin buradan geçmeleri Arktik Okyanusu’ nun stratejik önemini gösteriyor.http://www.google.com

Alman Alfred Wegener Enstitüsü tarafından yapılan araştırmalara göre Arktik Okyanusu’ nda bulunan mikroplastiklerin en üst seviyede olduğu söyleniyor. (Mikroplastikler: Mikroskop altında görünebilen plastik parçalardır. Genelde kozmetik ve boya malzemlerinin hammaddesi olarak kullanılır.) Okyanus’ un çeşitli yerlerinden alınan su örneklerinde litrede on iki binden fazla olacak  şekilde mikroplastik olduğu gözlemlendi. Mikroplastikler, sudaki canlılar için büyük tehlikedir.


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